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PAPER ON SMART CITIES (presented at 61st NTCP Congress, Ahmedabad on 9th Feb 2013)

61st NTCP Congress, Ahmedabad

401

SMART CITIES

Madhusudan D. Lele

Chief Planner, CIDCO

Smita Shirodkar

Deputy Planner, CIDCO

INTRODUCTION

The commonly held concept /misconcept is that a SMART city is one which uses advances in

technology for efficient working of the city .

But SMART city is not just about technology. Though the emphasis/focus of smart cities has been

on technology (IT and communication technology) it is not the singular factor that contributes to

making a city smart. For cities are complex and multidimensional.

Hence a smart city is also about smart comprehensive planning, efficient management, pragmatic

policies, environment conservation and integration and interrelationship of all these aspects/

components to achieve a sustainable economic development.

ORIGIN OF THE CONCEPT

The origin is in the widespread ills seen due to rapid urbanization. Almost half of the global

population today lives in cities. By 2030, UN forecasts estimate that more than 70% of the world

population will be urbanized. India itself is facing an unprecedented scale of urbanization with 700

million people likely to move to cities by 2050.

Urbanization in India is at 27 %. Five states in India are projected to become more than

50% urbanized by the next two decades. The pace and spread of urbanisation is not uniform.

Maharashtra with an urban population of 42 per cent (41 million), and the least urbanised state,

Assam with 13 per cent in 2001 indicate this inter-regional variation. In 2021, Maharashtra will

be more than half urban while Gujarat and all the southern states will be more than 40 per cent

urban. Among the northern states, Punjab, Haryana and Western U.P. will have significant

urbanisation levels.

Cities occupy 3% of the earth’s land surface, house half of the human population, use 75% of the

resources and account for 2/3rd of all energy and greenhouse gas emissions.

The impact of all this growth on space, environment and quality of life will be, to say the least,

tremendous. The provision of infrastructural facilities required to support such large concentration

of population is lagging far behind the pace of urbanization. To cope up with the humongous

challenge, it is believed that we need to establish a hundred new cities in the next two to three

decades.

Rapid urbanization is making urban life and its environment hazardous, and cities un- viable for

sustenance economically and physically. Considering the limited availability of natural resources,

cities will have to find methods to deal with the problems, have better energy and water management

and cope up with urban population and high densities through innovative planning and policies.

Madhusudan D. Lele, Smita Shirodkar

61st NTCP Congress, Ahmedabad

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To deal with the problem the concept of SMART cities has came into being - a new approach to deal

with the problems of urbanization.

DEFINITION

The Wikipedia defines a SMART city as one wherein

Investments in human, social capital, traditional transport and modern (ICT) communication

infrastructure fuel sustainable economic development and provide a high quality of life by engaging

wise management of natural resources, through participatory action.

Smart cities can be identified (and ranked) along six main axes or dimensions:

• a smart economy

• smart mobility

• a smart environment

• smart people

• smart living

• smart governance

Thus SMART city is that which provides for the wellbeing of the people through integration of

urban planning systems, efficient service delivery, smart governance, energy management and

conservation of resources with underlying use of technology and instrumentation leading to socio –

economic sustainable development

The concept is still under development and evolution. However the SMART CITY Concept has

caught on across the globe and has spearheaded a new approach to look at urban development and

management

EXAMPLES OF VARIOUS SMART STRATEGIES ADOPTED

Now let us take a look at SMART City strategies engaged by cities in INDIA and world wide

City of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, constantly mired in traffic jams, decided to turn to technology for a

solution; as a result, commuters now receive traffic alerts and re-routed directions via social media

before congestion becomes problematic. Singaporeans receive traffic predictions with an accuracy

of 90 per cent.

Dubai is to use flexible energy from renewable sources .First phase of the biggest solar park of the

region when launched, will generate 1000 MW. Rooftop solar schemes could provide another 2500

MW which is 20 percent of domestic power. It is proposed that by 2014, all buildings in Dubai must

be energy efficient according to new green building codes.

CITIES IN INDIA

Cities in India have taken a few steps towards becoming SMART by utilizing innovative city strategies

in management and delivery of services

Lavasa in Maharashtra

• It is touted as India’s first e-city., MyCity Technology -- a joint venture set-up by Lavasa Corporation

and Wipro would help in city management services, e-governance, ICT infrastructure and valueadded

services, including proposing and implementing intelligent home solutions and digital

lifestyles for the Lavasa citizens. Lavasa homes will offer touch-point automation, occupancybased

lighting, door and motion sensors, beam detectors and on-call transport services.

Madhusudan D. Lele, Smita Shirodkar

61st NTCP Congress, Ahmedabad

403

GIFT City in Gujarat:

• GIFT city coming up in Gandhi Nagar, Gujarat, will have a central command centre to monitor

the city-wide IT network and respond quickly during emergencies, energy-efficient cooling

systems instead of air conditioning, and high-tech waste collection systems. Cars will remain

outside, and there will be moving walkways to get to the city centre

• Greater Hyderabad is using GPS and GPRS technologies to cover solid waste management,

and maintain parks and street lights through cell phone images, subsequently put in the public

domain;

• Surat has on-line water quality monitoring system;

• Coimbatore’s computerized building-plan approval scheme;

• Bangalore opting for geographic information systems (GIS) to standardize property tax

administration;

• Jamshedpur Utilities Company providing an IT-enabled 24/7 single-window call centre and

customer database; and

• Kanpur improving municipal revenues using a GIS-linked property database.

FUTURE PLANS

• DMICDC has announced that it will build seven new smart cities along the Delhi Mumbai

Industrial Corridor. Eco-friendly cities are proposed to be planned along the Dedicated Freight

corridor (DFC) passing through six states —Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat

and Maharashtra to connect Delhi with Mumbai

URBAN LOCAL BODIES

Taking cue from the state government and reform measures to be taken up under JNNURM a lot of

Urban local bodies have adopted and are trying to implement modules relating to eight basic services

such as property tax, accounting, water supply and other utilities, birth and death registration,

grievance monitoring, personnel management, building plan approval and health programmes.

PREDOMINANT FOCUS ON TECHNOLOGY

It is observed that most of the focus is on technology driven services to transform the cities. The

same would require sustained and concentrated effort to achieve the goal. But the journey towards

achieving the goal of smart city would be half hearted and incomplete without considering other

collaborative factors of city development and their inter connections Thus one has to go beyond

technology and seek collaboration on all aspects ( physical , social economic and ecological) for

inclusive and sustainable growth.

EVALUATION OF NAVI MUMBAI AS SMART CITY

In the above context let us examine now whether Navi Mumbai could be labeled as SMART city.

Attempt is made to evaluate the city of Navi Mumbai on the basis of the 6 key indicators formulated

for SMART cities

• Smart Economy > Innovation and Competitiveness

• Smart People > Creativity and Social Capital

• Smart Governance > Empowerment and Participation

• Smart Mobility > Transport and Infrastructure

Madhusudan D. Lele, Smita Shirodkar

61st NTCP Congress, Ahmedabad

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• Smart Environment > Sustainability and Resources

• Smart Living > Quality of Life and Culture

BRIEF OF NAVI MUMBAI

The new town of Navi Mumbai was planned adjacent to Mumbai. The objective was to address the

problems of congestion in Mumbai. It was envisaged that the development of the new town of Navi

Mumbai across the creek would act as a counter magnet to Mumbai by attracting population. Thus

City & Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) was formed in 1970 as a company fully owned

by the state govt.

An area of 344 sq km was notified and land under 95 villages was acquired by state government and

vested with CIDCO.

Structure plan approach was adopted while preparing the development plan. The plan proposed to

keep as many options open as possible, instead of laying down detailed prescriptions for the entire

plan area. Broad land use zones along with major arterial transport corridors were earmarked in

which set of permissible land uses were allowed. 14 self sustained townships or nodes 14 were

planned across Navi Mumbai.

As the various nodes got developed over a period of two decades, NMMC ( Navi Mumbai Municipal

Corporation ) was formed in 1992 covering 29 villages out of Navi Mumbai project and another 15

villages from Kalyan complex area (Total 44 villages from Thane Taluka). The 7 developed nodes

were transferred by CIDCO to NMMC for maintenance purpose.

However CIDCO continues to own and develop vacant land within these nodes as the development

authority. All the capital and revenue expenditure in these nodes is borne by NMMC. The remaining

area consisting of 7 nodes and other non nodal area (in Raigad district to the south of NMMC area)

remains with CIDCO for development, provision and maintenance of services.

SMART ECONOMY - INNOVATION AND COMPETITIVENESS

Navi Mumbai always had immense potential being in close proximity of Mumbai - the commercial

capital of our country. At the time of conception MIDC’s existing Trans Thane Creek (TTC) industrial

belt gave support to the fledgling new city. In the early years the shifting of APMC market and iron

and steel markets were smart steps taken to boost the economy. Planning of ample commercial

area in the development plan in the form of District Business Centers within the nodes and Central

Business District planned in the geographical centre of Navi Mumbai, lent a support to develop the

economic base of the city. The flexible plan approach helped in responding to changing needs in

tune with the changing times.

Thus during the IT boom of the 90’s commercial complexes in the air space above the stations

were developed as InfoTech parks. Plots were identified for IT use. With liberalization and the

revised EXIM policy in 1997 promoting FDI, the proposal of Special Economic Zone (SEZ) was mooted

by CIDCO adjacent to the JNPT port. It is proposed in Navi Mumbai in an area of 2140 ha and is

expected to bring in investment of Rs 25000 Cr and create 5 lac jobs.

The international Airport proposed would also be the major trigger for development of the economy

in the area. Both these mega projects would have an impact not only on Navi Mumbai but on the

Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) at large.

Madhusudan D. Lele, Smita Shirodkar

61st NTCP Congress, Ahmedabad

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In anticipation of the growing needs of the city CIDCO has already planned and development is

underway of city level projects like exhibition centre, golf course , central park etc.

The city has transformed from the earlier fishing, rural activity base to bustling urban centre with

work participation of 35% of its population with an average per capita monthly income of 12,700 (

higher than that of Mumbai).

SMART PEOPLE - CREATIVITY AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

People make cities. They are the city’s assets. In Navi Mumbai the citizens have a good quality

of life and livelihood. The literacy in Navi Mumbai is 98% - higher than the national literacy of

74% and 83% that of the state. It is emerging as an educational hub with 19% graduates among

the literates. The widely and evenly distributed educational facilities in Navi Mumbai support

the learning endeavor of its citizens. The city is truly cosmopolitan, home to people of different

religions and from different states giving it cultural vibrancy. Creativity is nurtured in the city which

is home to intellectuals, artists and scientists. Navi Mumbai festival, urban haat exhibitions, melas

and public celebration of festivals have created bonding among its citizens.

SMART GOVERNANCE - EMPOWERMENT AND PARTICIPATION

Good governance with people’s participation is essential for smooth and productive functioning of

the city. In Navi Mumbai the land was acquired from its original inhabitants (now called project

affected people i.e. PAPs) for the Navi Mumbai project. Hence satisfaction of the PAPs by giving

adequate compensation and at the same time making them capable to earn a livelihood in tune

with urban life style was important for successful implementation of the project.

A multi pronged strategy was adopted to achieve this goal in the following terms:

Monetary Compensation

• Compensation against acquisition

• Solatium

• Stipends for higher and technical education

Capacity Building

• Technical Training

• Training for skilled / semiskilled jobs

• Entrepreneurship building (award of contracts)

• One job per family

Physical improvement of Gaothan (village settlement)

• Grant-in-Aid (construction / repairs of roads, social facilities)

• Gaothan Expansion Schemes & Regularization of layouts around villages

• Construction of Cultural Centres for Project Affected Persons

Land Compensation

• Gaothan Expansion Scheme (5% of land acquired, with cap of 500 sq.m.)

• The 12.5% Scheme (12.5% land returned in developed form)

The scheme has been highly successful and has subdued opposition to land acquisition. With support

of the PAPs the project has been going from strength to strength.

Madhusudan D. Lele, Smita Shirodkar

61st NTCP Congress, Ahmedabad

406

Various other technological inputs/practices are adopted by CIDCO and NMMC to bring transparency

in the governance.

• CIDCO and NMMC both maintain informatory websites giving details of the organization, working,

projects etc.

• Allotment of plots to PAPs is done by computer based lottery system to avoid irregularities.

• E tendering: CIDCO has implemented e tendering for processing of tenders on line for projects

costing more than Rs 50 lacs to ensure transparency, fair play, Quality procurement Competition

& Equal opportunity to all eligible Contractors/Vendors

• Bio metric attendance system is adopted for registering attendance

• The implementation of Auto DCR to process development permission cases is underway.

• GIS system and SAP system is being used for property management

Engineering Services

• Power Supply: SCADA system is installed for efficient energy management and uninterrupted

power supply in Kharghar

• STPs : Technology adopted is Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR C-Tech) which is energy and land

saving in comparison with conventional type STP. The treated effluent has been used for flushing

and gardening.

• Water Supply : The water supply from Hetawane project to Navi Mumbai from treatment to

distribution is monitored thereby reducing wastage from 30 % to almost 10%

NMMC has implemented integrated governance system providing services like

• Birth and Death Registration

• Property Tax

• Water Billing

• Other utilities

• Grievance & Suggestion

• Town Planning Application

• Works Module of all Utilities

• Trade Licensing Module

• Solid Waste Management

• Accounting System

• Personnel Information System

• Citizen Portal

• CESS

• Citizen Facilitation Center etc

SMART MOBILITY - TRANSPORT AND INFRASTRUCTURE

Good transport and infrastructure has been the major strength of the project. The city is supported

by well laid out and hierarchical road systems. The nodes are planned along major corridors. The

rail network acts as life line of the city. CIDCO took initiative for fast tracking the development of

rail network by sharing 2/3 of the burden of expenditure and providing land free of cost to railways.

The remaining 1/3 expenditure was borne by the railways.

Madhusudan D. Lele, Smita Shirodkar

61st NTCP Congress, Ahmedabad

407

The physical infrastructure network of water supply, electricity, storm water drainage is planned

extensively to provide efficient services.

New linkages like MTHL, DMIC are planned and review of the networks is being undertaken in the

light of the proposed NMIA project.

The city is on the map of waterways due to existing JNPT. Other water terminal sites are identified

and being developed for hovercraft and other services.

Metro system is being implemented in Navi Mumbai to provide mass transit connectivity. This system

will eventually connect to the proposed international airport

SMART ENVIRONMENT - SUSTAINABILITY AND RESOURCES

While planning the city sensitivity towards the environment was considered. Thus 40% of Navi

Mumbai land is green with open to sky uses. In the development plan the eco sensitive area along

the coast is considered under No Development Zone (NDZ). The hilly and other area with tree cover

has been earmarked as Regional Park Zone thereby maintaining the flora fauna. Also adequate

gardens and playgrounds are developed in the area.

The area of Navi Mumbai was low lying and needed reclamation. If the conventional method

were adopted it would have required reclamation above the High tide line level requiring large

amount of soil and would have lead to intensive quarrying of the neighbouring hills. Instead Dutch

method was adopted in which reclamation is done below HTL and storm water drained by system of

holding ponds and channels. This methodology avoided large scale excavation of hills and helped in

conserving natural resources.

SMART LIVING - QUALITY OF LIFE AND CULTURE

Navi Mumbai is the desired place to reside due to the quality of life it offers to its residents. The

neighborhood planning principle has been adopted to provide basic amenities at walking distance

from the residence. Thus schools, health facilities, shopping, community centers are accessible

within the neighborhood. The city is equipped with super specialty hospitals, sports facilities. The

DY Patil stadium has brought Navi Mumbai on the global cricket world map.

Provision of affordable housing was one of the main objectives of NMDP. CIDCO has developed

quality housing at affordable prices for all categories, with focus on EWS and LIG housing. Over

1.25 lakh houses have been built and 12,500 are under various stages of planning and construction.

Attempts are being made to develop Navi Mumbai as a tourist destination by taking up projects like

Urban Haat, Central Park, Nature park, Conservation of Killa (fort), Science Park, Marina, etc.

OBSERVATIONS

Navi Mumbai Experience

• The city being a planned new town, is an attractive and comfortable proposition to live in and

work without the age old problems of older cities.

• Has solid foundation of infrastructure development and economic base and has taken steps time

and again for its enhancement.

• Its notable strengths are its technological readiness, willingness to evolve and adopt

• The development authorities and the city ULBs have robust budgets –means to achieve the

ends

Madhusudan D. Lele, Smita Shirodkar

61st NTCP Congress, Ahmedabad

408

• The citizen satisfaction level is high with the quality of life it provides.

• The pace of development of SEZ has been slow and renewed focus is required on strengthening

the economic base

• Diversification of economy by not relying on service sector alone is needed - may be in terms of

manufacturing, tourism, etc.

• Major concern - unauthorized development

• Improvement required in traffic and transportation system with regard to safety and security

of the users as well as pedestrians

• Cultural life of city does not mean organizing a few events in the year but having a calendar of

events for the city.

• Co ordination, common policies and unified goals are required for various authorities functioning

within Navi Mumbai

• Building of closer ties and fostering interaction between the PAPs and the immigrant population

is also one of the areas needing attention.

We have to go a long way to face newer challenges and live up to the expectations and aspirations

of the people - both local and those who have made Navi Mumbai their home.

CONCLUSIONS

The Future That Lies Ahead

There is growing recognition of importance of technological tools to ease the life of citizens and

the customer base is increasing day by day. Internet is called the engine of globalization and

is steaming ahead full speed. Its integration with the working of the city has brought out many

positive improvements. Internet connects without physical proximity but that is not a substitute for

face to face interactions. Technology brings about various changes in the society. The pitfalls of any

technological advances need to be avoided and positive aspects need to be nurtured for achieving

a good quality life.

Convergence of various social, physical and economic aspects of the cities supported by sound

technological advances will help meet the goals, we believe.

References

Wikipedia

Smart City as Urban innovation: Focusing on management, policy and context

Taewoo nam and Theresa A Pardo

PAPER ON Urbanization- K. C. Sivaramakrishnan and B. N. Singh

India must modernize its cities or see them implode due to rising population pressure

Amitabh Kant, TNN

Madhusudan D. Lele, Smita Shirodkar

 

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